WHO on Autism Spectrum Disorder Worldwide



Autism Spectrum Disorders consist of a range of conditions characterised by some degree of impaired social behaviour, communication and language, and a narrow range of interests and activities that are both unique to the individual and carried out repetitively. Here are the few important facts by WHO(World Health Organization)on Autism Spectrum Disorder Worldwide explained by the Best Autism Specialist in Bangalore at CAPAAR the Best Autism Treatment in Bangalore.

Key Facts

      Data shows 1 in 160 children have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
      Autism begins in childhood and tends to persist into adolescence and adulthood.
      Interestingly some people with Autism do manage to live independently; others have severe disabilities and require life-long care and support.
      Observation based psychosocial interventions, such as ABA and parent skills training programmes, can reduce difficulties in communication and social behaviour, with a positive impact on wellbeing and quality of life for persons with ASD and their caregivers.
      The multiple Intervention options for people with Autism need to be coupled with broader actions for making physical, social and attitudinal environments more accessible, inclusive and supportive.
      Worldwide, people with ASD are often subject to stigma, discrimination and human rights violations. Universally, access to facilities and subsistence for people with ASD is inadequate.


Autism Disorder refers to number of circumstances characterised by some degree of impaired social behaviour, language and communication, and a small range of interests and activities which are both exclusive to the individual and carried out repetitively.

ASDs begin in early age of child and tend to persist into adulthood. In most of the cases, the conditions are possible during the first 5 years of life.

Other co-occurring conditions can be present in People with ASD including epilepsy, depression, anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the level of intellectual functioning in individuals with autism is extremely different and extending from profound impairment to advance levels.

Epidemiology


According to recent studies it is known that,1 among 160 children has an ASD. This clearly represents an average figure, and reported pervasively varies essentially across studies. Some studies have, however, reported figures that are substantially high. The prevalence of ASD in many low and middle-income countries is still unknown.

The prevalence of ASD appears to be increasing worldwide from the past 50years of medical data. Improved awareness, expansion of diagnostic criteria, advance diagnostic tools and improved reporting and many possible explanations have contributed for this likely increase.

Causes


Present scientific evidence suggests that, there are probably many number of factors that make a child more likely to have an ASD, including environmental and genetic respectively.

Accessible epidemiological till the data are conclusive, that there is no evidence of a causal association between mumps, measles and rubella vaccines, and ASD. Ancient studies tell a causal link were found to be filled with methodological.

There is no evidence to show that any other childhood vaccinations may increase the risk of ASD. It shows reviews of the potential association between aluminium adjuvants and thiomersal preservative contained in inactivated vaccines and the risk of ASD strongly concluded that vaccination do not increase the risk of Autism.

Assessment and Management


Arbitration during early age of child is important to promote the best development and well-being of people with Autism. Taking care of child development, as a part of daily routine maternal and child health care is recommended.

It is significant that, once recognised, children with an Autism disorder and their families are offered relevant information, services, yardstick, and practical support according to their needs. 

A cure for ASD is not completely available. Based on psychology interventions, however, behavioural treatment and skills training programmes for parents and other caregivers, can reduce problems in communication and social behaviour, with a positive impact on the person’s wellbeing and quality of life.

The wellness program for children with Autism disorder are complex and they require a large scale of integrated services, which includes healthcare promotion, rehabilitation services, and collaboration with other sectors such as the education, employment and independent sectors.

Interference for people with ASD and other mental disorders need to be guided by broader actions for making their physical, social, and attitudinal environments more accessible, supportive and inclusive.

Social and Economic Impacts


Autism may limit the ability of an individual to conduct daily activities and participate in a society. ASD often influence negatively, the person’s educational and social life as well as employment opportunities.

Whereas some individuals with ASD are able to live independently, remaining require life-long care and help. ASDs often impose emotional and economic burden on people with these disorders and their families. Taking care of children with the severe condition may be demanding, especially where access to services and support are inadequate. Therefore the grant of care takers is increasingly being recognized as a critical component of care interventions for children with ASD.

Human Rights


People with ASD are often subjected to stigma and inequality which includes unjust detriment of health, education and opportunities which helps in engaging and participating in their communities.

Individuals with ASD will have the same health issues that affect the general population. Further, they may have specific health care requirements related to ASD or other related conditions. They may be more accessible to developing chronic non-communicable conditions because of behavioural risk factors such as physically inactive and lack of dietary, and a great risk of violence, injury and abuse

They require accessible health services for general health-care needs as like the rest of the individuals, including promoting and preventive services and treatment of acute and chronic issues. Yet, people with ASD have higher rates of unfulfilled health-care needs compared with the common population. They are also more vulnerable during emergencies. A common point is created by health-care providers’ lacking of knowledge regarding ASD and misconceptions.

WHO Resolution on Autism Spectrum Disorders (WHA67.8)


May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly accepted a verdict entitled "Comprehensive and coordinated efforts for the managing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)," which was sustained by more than 60 countries.

The resolution craving that WHO to associate with Member States and partner agencies to strengthen national capacities to address ASD and other developmental disorders.

WHO Response

WHO and its partners recognize the need and strengthen the countries' abilities to promote optimal health and well-being of all persons with ASD.

Efforts are focusing on:
  • Contributing in enhancing the commitment of governments and international advocacy on autism
  • Promoting guidance on creating policies and action plans of ASD within the broader framework of mental health and their disabilities.
  • Contributing in developing the evidence on effective and scalable strategies for the guidance and treatment of ASD and other disorders.
  • WHO, in consultation with experts and parents' associations and civil society organizations which developed a parental skill in training programme which is currently undergoing field-testing.
  • WHO Parent Skills Training Package for care takers of children with developmental Autism disorders.


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